By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the japanese Sudanic kin. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya in basic terms Dholuo, spoken via approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily concerning it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of useful Grammar, the current quantity is a examine with a two-fold objective: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the potential of delivering such an account with no utilizing transformational ideas within the experience of structure-changing operations.
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Extra info for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
Thus, for example, we can have prepositional phrases such as: (129) Ng'ato ntndn e Iron: ' ' Someone sleep-IMP loc. ‘ (130) Opira olal e i huugu ball get-lost-PF lee. ' . -_ Moreover, the element e is replaced by kuom ‘on’ when Y is a living being (especially an animal or being) and there is no reference to a speciﬁc part of its body. ‘ but, B The possibility that lli could be a contraction of nitiere is worth investigating, though Ctmondi (1981) expresses doubtthat this suqiicion could be true.
5. ADVERBIALS The discussion of adverbs in this section is done within the framework outlined by Stockwell (1977: 42-48). In this approach, adverbs are subclassified in terms of what they predicate or are predications over. 5. I. g. (94) Ng'ato nindo e ﬁend yarll ' Someone sleep-IMP loc. g. ‘ (96) Nyithindo dhi (e) siirul children go-IMP (Loo) school ‘Children are going to schooL' _ . g. g. (98) Asewuotho mare! ‘ . g. g. g. g. ‘ _ _ The word gi ‘with‘ in (-102) is homophonous to the gi ‘and‘ which occurs in the following sentence?
In this study, two criteria have been applied in a complementary manner to tell whether or not a given word is a verb in Dholuo. The first of these criteria is a general notional one which, in the words of Stockwell (197738), can be expressed as follows: In their cognitive function, verbs are symbols for events (creations, changes of state, processes, actions) for states of affairs, and for speaker intention and attitude (promises, commands, hopes, expectations). An OUTLINE or Dnotuo GRAMMAR 31 The second criterion, which is based speciﬁcally on observations concerning Dholuo morphology, is that verbs are characterized by their ability formally to show aspeetual distinctions tonally andfor seg-mentally.