By Elisabeth Elgán, Irene Scobbie
Sweden’s transformation within the final century used to be led to no longer through the army prowess of outstanding Swedes (indeed neutrality has been a key point in Swedish coverage for nearly centuries) yet via the artistic skill of its humans. Sweden has emerged as a version welfare nation and a well-ordered democracy, to which economists, sociologists, feminists, architects, and scientists from subtle countries have paid learn visits. Sweden now depends upon foreign exchange to maintain its excessive way of life and, in a global of harsh overseas pageant, frequently has to fight to keep up its welfare approach and its acceptance. regardless of its current problems, in spite of the fact that, it is still one of many world’s such a lot complicated and prosperous democracies.
This 3rd version of ancient Dictionary of Sweden features a chronology, an advent, appendixes, an intensive bibliography, and a dictionary part with greater than three hundred cross-referenced entries on vital personalities, politics, financial system, overseas kinfolk, faith, and tradition. This booklet is a wonderful entry element for college kids, researchers, and an individual eager to recognize extra approximately Sweden.
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Extra info for Historical Dictionary of Sweden (Historical Dictionaries of Europe)
Following on from John Dalton’s atomic theory of 1803, Berzelius had by 1814 obtained accurate atomic weights of a number of elements. He discovered the elements selenium and thorium and was able to isolate others, including calcium and silicon. He developed the system of using letters of the alphabet for chemical symbols and formulas and urged the classification of minerals according to chemical composition. In 1818 Berzelius produced his first periodic table of chemical elements, a system still in use today.
Qxd xxxvi • 7/27/06 11:14 AM Page xxxvi INTRODUCTION Scandinavia under his rule. His son Karl XI successfully fought one desperate battle in 1676 for the retention of the southern provinces but then devoted his energies to internal affairs. During two long regencies, the nobility had increased their land holdings. Karl XI reclaimed estates for the crown (the “reduktions”). He established himself as absolute monarch, and, in a period of peace, he carried out far-reaching reforms in the field of the economy, the penal code, the church, education, and defense.
Magnus’s son Birger succeeded him in 1290. The nobility, gaining rapidly in authority, deposed Birger in 1319, preferring his nephew Magnus, already king of Norway. During Magnus’s reign, a national code of law replaced the old provincial laws, laying the foundation of Sweden’s first constitution, and in 1323 the Peace of Nöteborg established the frontiers between Russia and Sweden-Finland. Magnus’s power was largely illusory, and in 1364 Magnus was deposed by the nobility, who elected instead Albrekt of Mecklenburg.