By Maria-Luisa Rivero, Angela Ralli
This selection of seven papers stories vital facets of the syntax of Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, and Rumanian from a comparative standpoint in keeping with present linguistic frameworks, together with the Minimalist application. subject matters addressed contain regulate, elevating, and obviation, negation, noun word constitution, clitic pronouns, and verb flow.
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Extra resources for Comparative Syntax of the Balkan Languages
Negative fusion" Another set of negation facts to be considered here is more of the other sort, that is, interesting from the perspective of comparative linguistics of the Balkans (as opposed to comparative Balkan linguistics). At issue here is a phenomenon that can be referred to as "negative fusion": the joining of a negative marker with a verb to form a single word unit. An example from earlier stages of English is Old English nille 'not wants', which represents the negative marker ne fused with wille 'he/she wants'.
Returning to the matter of the potential Balkanological import of these comparisons made between Greek and Albanian with regard to their m-negators, crucial to any insights here is consideration of the historical development of these various functions in these languages. The following observations are critical in the evaluation of these facts. First, all of the functions in (7) for mi(n) are found in Ancient Greek for me except for ( 7 f ) : in the entirety of the Ancient Greek corpus, there are no instances of the independent usage of me expressing negative actions, such as prohibitions, except in ellipsis, where it occurs with other words, as in (7i).
Thus one finds njama 'there is no', from the verb 'have', in Belorussian; ne treated as a prefix on the verb in both Czech and Slovak; special negated forms in Serbian of 'want', 'have', 'can', and 'be'; and so forth. ~ Moreover, this situation is not surprising, since the oldest available Slavic, Old Church Slavonic, shows fused forms of "be', for example, nesnib I am not' (= *ne + esmi). Looking more widely yet, one can note cases of negative fusion throughout Indo-European, such as Latin nolo I do not want' (= *ne + wolo 'want'), or Old Irish ni "is not' (from *nest < *ne + est).