By Gert K. Pedersen (auth.)

Graduate scholars in arithmetic, who are looking to trip mild, will locate this publication beneficial; impatient younger researchers in different fields will take pleasure in it as an speedy connection with the highlights of recent research. beginning with normal topology, it strikes directly to normed and seminormed linear areas. From there it offers an advent to the overall idea of operators on Hilbert house, through a close exposition of a number of the kinds the spectral theorem could take; from Gelfand idea, through spectral measures, to maximal commutative von Neumann algebras. The booklet concludes with supplementary chapters: a concise account of unbounded operators and their spectral concept, and a whole path in degree and integration concept from a sophisticated aspect of view.

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Local Compactness 41 EXERCISES Show that the unit circle S 1 in � 2 and the unit interval [0, 1] both are (Hausdorff) compactifications of �. Hint: Use the fact that � is homeomorphic to the open interval ]0, 1 [ and (therefore also) homeomorphic to S 1 \ {(I, O) }. 2. Show for every n in 1\1 that � has the closed unit ball B n = n n {x E � l xf + . . + x; ::;; I } in � as a compactification. 3. Show for every n in 1\1 that � has the unit sphere s = n+ n+ . . 1 1 {x E � 1 xf + + X;+ 1 = I } in � as a compactification.

Product topology. Final topology. Quotient topology. Exercises. 1. Let (X, 't") and ( Y,a) be topological spaces. A function f: X -+ Y is said to be continuous if f- 1 (A) E 't" for every A in a . It is said to be continuous at a point x in X if f- 1 (A) E @(x) for every A in @(f(x» . 2. Proposition. A function is continuous iff it is continuous at every point. PROOF. If f: X -+ Y is continuous and A E @(f(x» for some x in X, choose B e A in @(f(x» n a. Then f- 1 (B) E 't" and f- 1 (B) c f- 1 (A), whence f- 1 (A) E @(x).

18. Show that the unit circle in 1R 2 is not homeomorphic to any subset of IR. 4. 17. 17. 19. ) Two continuous maps f: X -+ Y and g : X -+ Y be tween topological spaces X and Y are homotopic if there is a contin uous function F: [0, 1] x X -+ Y (where [0, 1] x X has the product topology), such that F(O, x) = f(x) and F(l, x) = g (x) for every x in X. Intuitively speaking, the homotopy F represents a continuous de formation of f into g. Show that any continuous function f: IRn -+ Y is homotopic to a constant function, and that the same is true for any continuous function g : X -+ IRn .