By Aditi Lahiri
Starting from tonogensis, pressure shift, and volume adjustment of paradigmatic levelling, allomorphy, and grammaticalization, this assortment covers a large speectrum of advancements, essentially in Germanice, Romance, and Indo-Aryan.
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Additional resources for Analogy, Levelling, Markedness: Principles of Change in Phonology and Morphology
These forms, derived from various Old English classes, have open short stressed syllables in all forms. On either account we expect lengthening in all forms of the paradigm. As there is no alternation, there is nothing to level, and we expect that such nouns will emerge in Modern English with long vowels. This is indeed the case, with some exceptions. In (6), we list words of this class we have identified, grouped according to stem vowel. (Again, we omit high vowels, which were not regularly subject to OSL).
SG imperative *sooki, *nasi > sookiis, nasiis (Section 7). The starting point: At the stage preceding the change, jan-verbs have an underlying stem in /-i/, on the evidence of the 2SG imperative, where the stem is overtly realized. This stem violates both the generalization (20) and STEM-FORM. g. /*sooki, *nasi/ > /sookii, nasii/. The motivation: The change (1) removes a class of exceptions to (20) and (2) optimizes lexical representations by eliminating violations STEM-FORM and FOOT-FORM. To see how /sookii/ is preferred to /*sooki/, see the constraint table below, for /nasii/, cf.
SG herdoos 'herd'; a:oo is the regular length alternation in low vowels) c. g. SG banjoos 'injury') 24 Paul Kiparsky (H) SG NOM GEN DAT ACC PL NOM GEN DAT ACC o- stems herda herdoos herdai herda herdoos herdoo herdoom herdoos 'herd' jo- stems banja banjoos banjai banja banjoos banjoo banjoom banjoos 'injury' The dative singular is not an exception; its -ai is enforced by the fact that -ooi is an impossible diphthong in Gothic. By the same token, two separate stem allomorphs need be posited only for that class of yVz-stems where they are motivated by an overt alternation, namely in masculines.